Now, I came across this interesting information based on human sacrifices being done towards Shang-ti.
Now, from the excerpt of "Human sacrifice during the Shang dynasty" based from "Keren Wang's website states some interesting things about "Shang-di": "According to official historical records compiled during the Zhou dynasty (1046 BC–256 BC), Shang was the second Chinese dynasty the quasi-legendary Xia dynasty (c.2070 BC –1600 BC). However, as there are no conclusive archaeological records proving the existence of the Xia dynasty, Shang is so far the earliest confirmed Chinese dynasty in that the earliest written record were dated to this era."
"Written artifacts excavated from Shang archaeological sites were predominantly in the form of oracle bone script. These writings were used specifically during state divination ceremonies where the Shang ruler both acting as a king and as a high priest, would carve scripts concerning matters of state importance (such as military affairs, prayers for bountiful harvest, and matters concerning sacrificial offerings) onto specially prepared tortoise carapaces and cow bones."
"The Shang king would then prod the oracle bones with a red-hot bronze rod, which would cause the bones to crack under the intense heat, indicating that the singular supreme deity of the Shang people, Shang-Di (“the lord from above”) had answered the questions inscribed on the bones, and the cracks left on the bones were supposedly Shang-Di’s divine answers."
"Only the Shang king could interpret these and announce them to his people as divine mandates. Oracle bone script is the earliest known Chinese writing system; it is, nonetheless, a highly developed iconographic form of writing that resemble contemporary Chinese characters, and written in a grammar consistent with classical written Chinese."
"Thus, despite its ancient origin, the oracle script has been surprisingly legible for modern day archaeological scholars, perhaps due to the fact that it is, like contemporary Chinese, a purely logographic medium that transmits meaning without relying on phonetic representation, and therefore remained relatively static across millennia."
"A sizable portion of the oracle bones uncovered in Shang archaeological sites contain script specifically concerning human sacrifice. These written records are also corroborated by the discovery of numerous sacrificial mass-graves in those sites. In most Shang sacrificial rituals, only animals and valuable chattels (such as bronze wares) would be used as offerings."
"There were only two exceptional circumstances where human sacrifices were made: xunzang and renji. Xunzang (lit. “burial sacrifice”) refers to the practice in which personal slaves and servants of Shang king, upon their master’s death, were expected to commit ritual suicide or to “volunteer” themselves to be buried alive alongside with their master."
"While the practice of committing ritual suicide upon the master’s death has lingered throughout Chinese history, the second type of human sacrifice, renji (lit. “human offering sacrifice) is practiced only during the Shang dynasty period, and also the most massive in scale in terms of number of people killed in a typical renji ceremony." "The demographic pattern of Shang sacrificial victims is also quite interesting. Xunzang victims (or “volunteers”) were mostly personal slaves (i.e. house servants), and therefore in xunzang burial sites we could find a pretty even mix of male and female human remains. Renji victims, on the other hand, appears to be predominately male. Unlike xunzang, the people sacrificed for Renji were not personal slaves, but mostly prisoners of war and field slaves (keep in mind that Shang field slaves were typically captured from distant lands outside of Shang domain)."
"Specifically, renji functions as prayers to Shang-Di to deliver the Shang people from famine. This kind of sacrifice would only take place during periods of severe food shortage (usually due to drought or war). Hundreds of captured slaves were typically executed during a renji ceremony, usually via decapitation. The corpses of the victims, along with their severed heads, were buried in mass sacrificial pits or collectively incinerated, in order to placate what they thought was an angry Shang-Di."
"To pray for the end of the famine brought by Shang-Di’s wrath, the Shang king would demonstrate to the supreme deity of their devoutness through the specular spilling of sacrificial human blood. Oracle bone inscriptions refer to such sacrificial human blood as qiu (lit. “cascade”), but the precise method for extracting the sacrificial blood unknown. The largest recorded human sacrifice of this kind was done by Shang king Wuding, where over 9,000 slaves were slaughtered as offerings to Shang-Di."
Now, based on these practices the Chinese got into, was being done the sameway amongst the Tamils in the Murugan festivals, and the Aztecs' human sacrifice/bloodletting ceremonies in America. When the article mentioned "human blood sacrifice", it's shown that this practice is based on exactly what the God of fire told the Aryans not to get into. However, what's very interesting is that this article states the earliest known Dynasty before the "Zhou" is the "Shang", and much of those ancient artifacts did not depict these modern Chinese but the black inhabitants of the land.
This shows that these Chinese people can't be the Shang to which are claimed to be, but had came later and merely adapted some of their ways. This is why it's so confusing, because they state the people were offering people to God known as Shang-di, however, based from Godfrey Higgin's book details this version of "Shang-di" to being the spirit was prayed to for health of mind and body, and to which a tablet was represented in their homes. Based from Marco Polo's description details this "Shang-ti" to be very different than harming yourself towards this other version. This practice of "bloodletting" is shown to be the same practice that that's towards Murugan, who is known as the Peacock Angel and the son of the Queen of Heaven.
This is the practice is based on the Murugan festival which is basically fire walking to Moloch and piercing and cutting themselves to the dead. The Taoist practitioners have gone into the same practice of bloodletting and witchcraft. These Taoist festivals would be called "Phuket vegetarian festival", "hungry ghost festival" and the "9 Emperor gods festival".