The Children of Agni

This Chapter is a contuation from the 1st. Let's see more of what Godfrey Higgins' book details about the "Virgin Mary", then I'll detail other info later on. 

VOLUME I - BOOK VI - CHAPTER II Page 305: "Isidore of Seville says, that the meaning of the word Mary is, One who begins to illuminate—Maria illuminatrix. He gives to this virgin, as her mother, a person called Anna, an allegorical name, by which the Romans meant the annual revolution of the sun, which they personified, and for whom they had a festival, under the name of Anna Perenna, at the beginning of the year.* The Hindoos have the same person as a Goddess under the name of Anna, or Unnu Poorna.** Poorna is evidently Perenna, or Porana. There is extant, in Jones on the Canon, a gospel history called that of James or of Mary, in which her mother is called Anna, of whom I shall say more presently. " "Dr. Pritchard says, "The beneficient form of Bhavani, termed Devi or Anna Purna, is doubtless. As Sir W. Jones remarked, the Anna Perenna of the Romans."

Again, "Anna Purna is, however, also the counterpart of the Egyptian Isis. She is figured as bent by the weight of her full breasts, and reminds us of the statues of Isis Multimammia." Again, "Bhavani is invoked by the name of Ma, as was Demeter among the Greeks by that of Maia."* In the passages where the Hebrew word .*9/ mrim of the Old Testament is translated by the Vulgate, it is rendered Maria, and the LXX. render it Mariam. All this clearly proves that they are the same name.** * Anal. Egypt. Mythos. p.280. ** Exod. xv. 20." "… In the fourth century there existed a sect of Christians called Collyridrians, who made offerings of cakes to the Virgin Mary as a Goddess and Queen of Heaven.* * Jortin, Eccles. Rem. Vol. I. 332. The Collyridians are said, by Mr. Sayle.* to have come from Arabia. They worshiped the Virgin Mary for God, offering her a sort of twisted cake called collyris, whence the sect had its name."

"This notion of the divinity of the Virgin Mary was also believed by some persons at the Council of Nice, who said there were two Gods besides the Father, viz. Christ and the Virgin Mary; and they were thence named Mariamites." (It's obvious that the God of fire had stated in Jeremiah 44, telling those in Judah to not get into the worship of the Queen of heaven. See "The real Aryans 1", on the Roma people) "Page 306 It is very evident that the idea of Mary being the mother of God, and also God himself, in some way or other, arose from the Maia of India, the spouse of Brahme. Maia was the female generative power, and, as such, the Deity, and the mother of Buddha, or Divine Wisdom or the Logos. Thus she was the mother of Iao or of IHS or of Jesus, and still a part of the Deity. She was also the ( ruh, and thus it was that this word was feminine in the Hebrew or the Buddhist book of Genesis."

"Page 307 In many churches as well as in many places in the streets of Mayence on the Rhine, the Virgin is seen having the child on one arm, and a branch of lilies, the lotus, in the hand of the other arm, standing with one foot upon the head of the serpent, which has a sprig of an apple-tree with an apple on it in its mouth, and its tail twisted about a globe partly enveloped in clouds; therefore evidently a celestial globe. Her other foot is placed in the inside of a crescent. Her head is surrounded with a glory of stars. Can any one doubt that this is the Regina Stellarum of the sphere ?"

"The branch of the apple-tree in the mouth of the serpent with the Virgin's foot upon its head, shews pretty clearly who this Virgin of the sphere was—Ipsa conteret caput tuum. The circumstance of the Virgin almost always having the lotus or lily, the sacred plant both of Egypt and India, in her hand (or an angel has it and presents it to her) is very striking."

"It is found, Sir R. Ker Porter observes,* "in Egypt, Palestine, Persia, India, all over the East, and was of old in the tabernacle and temple of the Israelites. It is also represented in all pictures of the salutation of Gabriel to the Virgin Mary; and, in fact, has been held in mysterious veneration by people of all nations and times." * Travels in Persia, VI. p.628, 4to. The worship of the black Virgin and Child probably come from the East. The white one is the Goddess Nurtia or Nortia of the Etruscans. …"

"There can be no doubt, that the Virgin of the sphere, who treads on the head of the serpent, is the Virgin of the first book of Genesis. This is all explained by Mons. Dupuis.* In some of the spheres we see the Virgin with the lotus or lily, in others with ears of ripe corn in her hand. I apprehend the Virgin with the ripe corn was the Virgin of Taurus : and that the birth-place of this mythos will be found in a latitude where corn will be ripe in August or the beginning of September, and this will fix it to a latitude very far from Lower India or Upper Egypt; to about that latitude where May, or the month of Maia, the mother of the God Buddha, would be the leading spring month, in which all nature would be in its most beautiful attire, and this would be at least as high as latitude 45, or North of Samarkand."

"Page 311 No person who has considered well the character of the temples on India and Egypt, can help being convinced of the identity of their character, and of their being the production of the same race of people; and this race evidently Ethiopian. The Sphinxes have all Ethiopian faces. The bust of Memnon in the British Museum is evidently Ethiopian. The worship of the Mother and Child is seen in all parts of the Egyptian religion. It prevails every where. It is the worship of Isis and the infant Orus or Osiris. It is the religious rite which was so often prohibited at Rome, but which prevailed in spite of all opposition, as we find from the remaining ruins of its temples. It was perhaps from this country, Egypt, that the worship of the black virgin and child came into Italy, where it still prevails. It was the worship of the mother of the God Iaw, the Saviour; Bacchus in Greece, Adonis in Syria, Cristna in India; coming into Italy through the medium of the two Ethiopias, she was as the Ethiopians were, black, and such she still remains. Dr. Shuckford* has the following curious passage : "We have several representations in the draughts of the same learned antiquary (Montfaucon), which are said to be Isis, holding or giving suck to the boy Orus; but it shouls be remarked, that Orus was not represented by the figure of a new-born child : for Plutarch tells us, that a new-born child was the Egyptian picture of the sun's rising."** Plutarch and Montfaucon were both right. Orus was the sun, and the infant child was the picture of the sun, in his infancy or birth, immediately after the winter solstice—when he began to increase. Orus, I repeat, is nothing but the Hebrew word 9&! aur, lux, light—the very light so often spoken of by St. John, in the first chapter of his gospel. Plutarch*** says, that Osiris means a benevolent and beneficent power, as does likewise his other name OMPHIS. In a former book I have taken much pains to discover the meaning of Omphi. After all, is it any thing but the OM, with the Coptic emphatic article Pi ?"

"Page 312 There is no more reason for calling Isis the moon, than the earth. She was called by all the following names : Minerva, Venus, Juno, Porserpina, Ceres, Diana, Rhea seu Tellus, Pessinuncia, Rhamnusia, Bellona, Hecate, Luna, Polymorphus Dæmon.* But most of these have been shewn to be in fact all one—the Sun. Isis, therefore, can be nothing but the sun, or the being whose residence was the sun. This being we have seen was both masculine and feminine : I therefore conclude that Isis was no other than the first cause in its feminine character, an Osiris was the first cause of the masculine. …"

"Page 313 … The generative principle is considered to have existed before light, and to be the mother of both gods and men, as the generative source of all things. In this character she is the black Venus of Orpheus,* and the black Maia or Maria of Italy, the Regina Cœli, Regina Stellarum, &c. …"

VOLUME II - BOOK V - CHAPTER II Page 362 "In compliance with, or rather in submission to, the superior judgment of Mr. Laurence and other physiologists, on a subject on which I could not be expected to form an opinion upon anatomical grounds, namely, on the question whether there were originally only one or more than one species of man, in my observations respecting the black Gods, I treated them as one genus and one species; I now think it expedient to make a few additional observations to shew how my theory may be affected, supposing there was only one genus, (which is a fact which cannot possibly be disputed,) but several species."

"If the latter should be the state of the case, as maintained by Mr. Ruish of Petersburg, who professes to exhibit the Rete-mucosum by which the blackness is produced in the Negro, then I should suppose that there have been various races of red and white as well as the black one; but, that the originals of all the Gods have been of the black race, of the class of the followers of Cristna, after the black race had become improved into the shape in which we find him—that, by the handsome black males constantly uniting with the most handsome black females, their progeny increased in beauty till it arrived at the degree of perfection which we find in Cristna; that the pontifical government did originally consist of this race, and that, in the East, the entire population consisting of this race, it continues black—still retains the rete-mucosum—though for the reasons before given by me, it is improved in shape : but that, in the West, to which it sent out numerous tribes, it mixed with the white races, the remains of the inhabitants before the flood, called aborigines, the rich and powerful gradually marrying with the handsomest of the white races, till the whole race of the worshipers of the black God became white."

"We have daily experience of the black races, by this process, becoming white; but we have no example of the white race going back to the black. I pretend not to shew the cause of this latter circumstance, which is a fact—but the mere fact itself. This seems to shew that the aborigines were more numerous than the black colonies from the East; but this is, perhaps, no more than might be expected. … That the Buddhists were Negroes, the icons of the God clearly prove."

There is a vast connection between Christianity and Buddhism, and of course, there were black people in Ancient Europe, America, Asia and eslewhere. It's revealed in Godfrey's book that the black people would be the considered "Sons of God". But first let's detail how the original Buddha would have a flat nose, thick lips and curly hair before the formation of Mahayana Buddhism from the Aryans:

BOOK I - CHAPTER IV in "The Anacalypsis" page 51 states this: "… but I shall, in the course of this work, produce a number of extraordinary facts, which will be quite sufficient to prove, that a black race, in very early times, had more influence over the affairs of the world than has been lately suspected; and I think I shall shew, by some striking circumstances yet existing, that the effects of this influence have not entirely passed away. It was the opinion of Sir William Jones, that a great nation of Blacks* formely possessed the dominion of Asia, and held the seat of empire at Sidon. These must have been the people called by Mr. Maurice Cushites or Cuthites, described in Genesis; and the opinion that they were Blacks is corroborated by the translators of the Pentateuch, called the Seventy, constantly rendering the word Cush by Ethiopia. …"

"Of this nation we have no account; but it must have flourished after the deluge. … If I succeed in collecting a sufficient number to carry conviction to an impartial mind, the empire must be allowed to have existed. The religion of Buddha, of India, is well known to have been very ancient. In the most ancient temples scattered throughout Asia, where his worship is yet continued, he is found black as jet, with the flat face, thick lips, and curly hair of the Negro."

"Several statues of him may be met with the East-India Company. There are two exemplars of him brooding on the face of the deep, upon a coiled serpent. To what time are we to allot this Negro ? He will be proved to have been prior to Cristna. He must have been prior to or contemporaneous with the black empire, supposed by Sir William Jones to have flourished at Sidon. The religion of this Negro God is found, by the ruins of his temples and other circumstances, to have been spread over an immense extent of country, even to the remotest parts of Britain, and to have been professed by devotees inconceivably numerous. …"

Page 57 states: "Mr. Wilsford, in his treatise on Egypt and the Nile, in the Asiatic Researches, informs us, that many very ancient statues of the God Buddha in India have crisp, curly hair, with flat noses and thick lips; and adds, "nor can it be reasonably doubted, that a race of Negroes formerly had power and pre-eminence in India. This is confirmed by Mr. Maurice, who says, "The figures in the Hindoo caverns are of a very different character from the present race of Hindoos : their countenances are broad and full, the nose flat, and the lips, particularly the under lip, remarkably thick."

"… Justin states, that the Phœnecians being obliged to leave their native country in the East, they settled first near the Assyrian Lake, which is the Persian Gulf; and Maurice says, "We find an extensive district, named Palestine, to the east of the Euphrates and Tigris. The word Palestine seems derived from Pallisthan, the seat of the Pallis or Shepherds."

"Palli, in India, means Shepherd. … It is a well-known fact that our Hindoo soldiers when they arrived in Egypt, in the late war, recognized the Gods of their country in the ancient temples, particularly their God Cristna. The striking similarity, indeed identity, of the style of architecture and the ornaments of the ancient Egyptian and Hindoo temples, Mr. Maurice has proven beyond all doubt. …"

Page 59 continuing… "In my Essay on The Celtic Druids, I have shewn, that a great nation called Celtæ, of whom the Druids were the priests, spread themselves almost over the whole earth, and are to be traced in their rude gigantic monuments from India to the extremities of Britain. Who these can have been but the early individuals of the black nation of whom we have been treating I know not, and in this opinion I am not singular. The learned Maurice says, "Cuthites, i. e. Celts, built the great temples in India and Britain, and excavated the caves of the former." And the learned Mathematician, Reuben Burrow, has no hesitation in pronouncing Stonehenge to be a temple of the black, curly-headed Buddha." (Reveals that they have traveled all the way to Ireland, in which reveals the true origin of Christianity)

VOLUME I - BOOK V - CHAPTER I Page 161 "The figure in the plates numbered 8, descriptive of Buddha or Cristna, is given by Mons. Creuzer. The following is the account given of this plate by Mons. Guigniault :* Crichna 8e avatar ou incarnation de Vichnou, sous la figure d'un enfant, allaité par Devaki, sa mère, et recevant des offrandes de fruits; près de là est un groupe d'animaux rassembés dans une espèce d'arche. La tête de l'enfant-dieu, noir, comme indique son nom, est ceinte d'une auréole aussi bien que celle de sa mère. On peut voir encore, dans cette belle peinture, Buddha sur le sein de Maya."** * 61, xiii."

"Of the two trays which are placed by the figure with the infant, one contains boxes, part of them exactly similar to the frankincense boxes now used in the Romish churches, and others such as might be expected to hold offerings of Myrrh or Gold. The second contains cows, sheep, cattle, and other animals. If my reader has ever seen the exhibition of the nativity in the church of the Ara Cœli at Rome, on Christmas-day, he will recollect the sheep, cows, &c., &c., which stand around the Virgin and Child. It is an exact icon of this picture. Hundreds of pictures of the Mother and Child, almost exact copies of this picture, are to be seen in Italy and many other Romish countries. … But yet there is one circumstance of very great importance which is peculiar to Buddha, and forms a discriminating mark between him and Cristna, which is, that he is continually described as a Negro, not only with a black complexion, in which he agrees with Cristna, but with woolly hair and flat face."

"M. Creuzer observes, that the black Buddha, with frizzled or curled hair, attaches himself at the same time to the three systems into which the religion of India divides itself. Mr. Moore, on his woolly head, says, "Some statues of Buddha certainly exhibit thick Ethiopian lips;* but all woolly hair : there is something mysterious, and unexplained, connected with the hair of this, and only of this, Indian deity. The fact of so many different tales having been invented to account for his crisped, woolly head, is alone sufficient to excite suspicion, that there is something to conceal—something to be ashamed of; more than meets the eye." "The lips are often tinged with red to shew that the blackness does not arise from the colour of the bronze or stone of which the image is made, but that black is the colour of the God. ** Moore's Pantheon, p.232. The reason why Buddha is a Negro, at least in the very old icons, I trust I shall be able to explain in a satisfactory manner hereafter."

"The Brahmins form a species of corporation, a sacerdotal aristocracy, possessing great privileges; but the Buddhists have a regular hierarchy; they form a state within a state, or a spiritual monarchy at the side of a temporal one. "They have their cloisters, their monastic life, and a religious rule. Their monks form a priesthood numerous and powerful, and they place their first great founder at their head as the sacred depositary of their faith, which is transmitted by the spiritual prince, who is supported by the contributions of the faithful, from generation to generation, similar to that of the Lamas of Thibet."

"M. Creuzer might have said, not similar to, but identical with the Lama himself; who, like the Pope of Rome, is God on Earth, at the head of all, a title which the latter formerly assumed. Indeed the close similarity between the two is quite wonderful to those who do not understand it. The monks and nuns of the Buddhists, here noticed by M. Creuzer, take the three cardinal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience,—the same as the monks and nuns of the European Christians. This singular fact at once proves the identity of the orders in the two communities, and that they must have had a common origin. I know not any circumstance of consequence in their economy in which they differ."

Interesting that the Buddhist were all the way in Europe (as stated), it's also interesting that the garb that is worn by the Muslims ( as they wear the garb with their right shoulder bare) is exactly how the Hindus would do. Some sources state that the Hindus would go around the Shiva lingam seven times clockwise whereas the Muslims would go counter clockwise in motion around the Kaaba. But you don't have to look far because the Greeks and Romans also have that similar attire. The Toga apparently has been the attire and dress code similar to the Hindus. But what about Jesus?  Seeing the gods being similar is no different than the dress code of the people with a common connection.I also remember finding a pic of a Roman citizen having a "bindi" on the forehead, but can't find that image as of yet:

Sir Godfrey Higgins states of Goddesses like Venus, Aphrodite, Juno, Inanna, Ishtar, Isis and even Cybele were said to be originally black in color. So, let us look at Diana of the Ephesians that is mentioned in Acts 19:35 “…Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter?” (Heaven) So, who is the great goddess Diana that is being spoken here in Acts? 

According to Higgins, Diana is a black goddess by origin. The mother of Zeus is Rhea who goes by another name of "Cybele", who bears the title “mother of the gods” or Magna Mater meaning the "Great mother". Her other name is "Kubileya" or "Kubeleya" which resembles the word “cube” and the black cube, as she originally is a black goddess.

Now why do the Muslims consider the Black stone as sacred when it came from heaven? Does this not remind you of the men of Ephesus in Acts 19:35, who worshiped the “image” that fell from heaven? The black stone is merely molded together with other materials and is strangely shaped like the female genitalia with a silver gourd. And I know this because I went to kiss it three times when I did Umrah in Saudi Arabia many years ago.

One source explains the history of the Kaaba was originally a Hindu temple in worship towards Shiva, and the Lingam being venerated in the black stone, was broken into pieces and put into where it’s now. The goddess "Allat", "Al-manat" and "Al-uzza" are mentioned in the chapter of the "Star" in the Quran, and are linked to the Hindu goddess "Durga", "Parvati" and "Kali". However, there are certain things that happened in the different parts of history as Muhammed came to destroy the 360 idols. One source states that Muhammed destroyed everything but left only Krishna and the Shiva Lingam left. Another source states that it used to be full of the idols of Christian saints from the Catholic Church, but then was purged by Muhammed. Then after his death, the followers started to change certain things thus deviating away from the originality.

There is a stone called Stone of Aphrodite, as this is similar to the Black stone. But first let's learn about the Goddess. Here in the Wiki states this:

"Aphrodite is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, lust, beauty, pleasure, passion, and procreation. She was syncretized with the Roman goddess Venus. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, roses, doves, sparrows, and swans. The cult of Aphrodite was largely derived from that of the Phoenician goddess Astarte, a cognate of the East Semitic goddess Ishtar, whose cult was based on the Sumerian cult of Inanna. Aphrodite's main cult centers were Cythera, Cyprus, Corinth, and Athens. Her main festival was the Aphrodisia, which was celebrated annually in midsummer. In Laconia, Aphrodite was worshipped as a warrior goddess. She was also the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of "sacred prostitution" in Greco-Roman culture, an idea which is now generally seen as erroneous."

"In Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite is born off the coast of Cythera from the foam (ἀφρός, aphrós) produced by Uranus's genitals, which his son Cronus had severed and thrown into the sea. In Homer's Iliad, however, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Plato, in his Symposium, asserts that these two origins actually belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania (a transcendent, "Heavenly" Aphrodite) and Aphrodite Pandemos (Aphrodite common to "all the people"). Aphrodite had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult. Thus she was also known as Cytherea (Lady of Cythera) and Cypris (Lady of Cyprus), because both locations claimed to be the place of her birth."

"In Greek mythology, Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus, the god of fire, blacksmiths and metalworking. Aphrodite was frequently unfaithful to him and had many lovers; in the Odyssey, she is caught in the act of adultery with Ares, the god of war. In the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, she seduces the mortal shepherd Anchises. Aphrodite was also the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar."

"Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad. Aphrodite has been featured in Western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of Western literature. She is a major deity in modern Neopagan religions, including the Church of Aphrodite, Wicca, and Hellenismos."

(If people don't know the significance of Aphrodite's child shepherd Adonis getting killed by a boar is based on, this is the origin story of "Easter", as Semiramus' child Tammuz gets eaten by a boar)

Origin: "The cult of Aphrodite in Greece was imported from, or at least influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia, which, in turn, was influenced by the cult of the Mesopotamian goddess known as "Ishtar" to the East Semitic peoples and as "Inanna" to the Sumerians. Pausanias states that the first to establish a cult of Aphrodite were the Assyrians, followed by the Paphians of Cyprus and then the Phoenicians at Ascalon. The Phoenicians, in turn, taught her worship to the people of Cythera. Aphrodite took on Inanna-Ishtar's associations with sexuality and procreation. Furthermore, she was known as Ourania (Οὐρανία), which means "heavenly", a title corresponding to Inanna's role as the Queen of Heaven."

"Early artistic and literary portrayals of Aphrodite are extremely similar on Inanna-Ishtar. Like Inanna-Ishtar, Aphrodite was also a warrior goddess; the second-century AD Greek geographer Pausanias records that, in Sparta, Aphrodite was worshipped as Aphrodite Areia, which means "warlike". He also mentions that Aphrodite's most ancient cult statues in Sparta and on Cythera showed her bearing arms. Modern scholars note that Aphrodite's warrior-goddess aspects appear in the oldest strata of her worship and see it as an indication of her Near Eastern origins."

"Nineteenth century classical scholars had a general aversion to the idea that ancient Greek religion was at all influenced by the cultures of the Near East, but, even Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, who argued that Near Eastern influence on Greek culture was largely confined to material culture, admitted that Aphrodite was clearly of Phoenician origin. The significant influence of Near Eastern culture on early Greek religion in general, and on the cult of Aphrodite in particular, is now widely recognized as dating to a period of orientalization during the eighth century BC, when archaic Greece was on the fringes of the Neo-Assyrian Empire."

Birth: "Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island of Cyprus, which is why she is sometimes called "Cyprian", especially in the poetic works of Sappho. The Sanctuary of Aphrodite Paphia, marking her birthplace, was a place of pilgrimage in the ancient world for centuries. Other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, "Cytherea"."

"Cythera was a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus, so these stories may preserve traces of the migration of Aphrodite's cult from the Middle East to mainland Greece. According to the version of her birth recounted by Hesiod in his Theogony, Cronus severed Uranus' genitals and threw them behind him into the sea. The foam from his genitals gave rise to Aphrodite (hence her name, which Hesiod interprets as "foam-arisen"), while the Giants, the Erinyes (furies), and the Meliae emerged from the drops of his blood. Hesiod states that the genitals "were carried over the sea a long time, and white foam arose from the immortal flesh; with it a girl grew." Hesiod's account of Aphrodite's birth following Uranus's castration is probably derived from The Song of Kumarbi, an ancient Hittite epic poem in which the god Kumarbi overthrows his father Anu, the god of the sky, and bites off his genitals, causing him to become pregnant and give birth to Anu's children, which include Ishtar and her brother Teshub, the Hittite storm god."

"In the Iliad, Aphrodite is described as the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Dione's name appears to be a feminine cognate to Dios and Dion, which are oblique forms of the name Zeus. Zeus and Dione shared a cult at Dodona in northwestern Greece. In Theogony, Hesiod describes Dione as an Oceanid, but Apollodorus makes her the thirteenth Titan, child of Gaia and Uranus." 

This connects to Aphrodite who was formed from the sea after Uranus' phallus was cut off by Cronus and thrown into the sea. Aphrodite means "foam from the sea" as the "self-created deity". This is similar to Murugan who was born from the Swamp by Shiva and Parvati without any conception. The connections between Aphrodite and the "Dove" is the symbol of Aphrodite as the Queen of heaven, is where "Dove" soap comes into play, and why the Churches state her to be "Our lady of the seas"...Even the "Minoan" goddess and "Viracocha" (which means "sea foam", thus relating to the goddess Aphrodite) who would carry serpents on their hands have similar names. Even though they state that Viracocha is a male deity, it seems that the name "sea foam" is represents Aphrodite, as the one "born from the sea foam".

In Carlos Santana's album cover of "Abraxas", details "Abraxas" as a black woman who has the symbol of the "Dove" near between her legs

Now, let's see the "www.giovannicasu.com" on the "Black Stone of Aphrodite": the journey of the aura of the black stone of Cyprus:

"The Black Stone of Cyprus is a 122 centimeter high an iconic black gabbro stone found in the Neolithic period. Following the legend, it was found near the beach of Aphrodite in South Cyprus from a lavic deposit. Worshipped as a holy object, the raw stone was transported to a location that became the Sanctuary of Aphrodite in the archaeological site of Palaipafos (Kouklia). For thousands of years it was touched by thousands of hands during rituals, covered with oil and thus smothened."

"The rituals were first related to the cult of the Queen of Cyprus, the Goddess of Cyprus, the Big Mother, then to Astarte and finally to Aphrodite. The cult of Aphrodite is born indeed around the cult to the black stone. It was presumably the center of the stage of the sanctuary of Palaipafos as documented by Homer, Tacite and depicted on Greek, Roman, and Egyptian coins produced in Cyprus and elsewhere between the first century BC and the beginning of the 3rd century."

"After almost 1700 years of disappearance the black stone was then rediscovered by archeological researchers: while the exact date of the rediscovery is still controversial, the stone was first mentioned by D.G. Hogarth in 1888. It was found buried/embedded in a late roman mosaic floor but not recognized as the holy stone of Paphos. Its importance was only fully recognized in 1913 during second archaeological excavations by J.F. Myres. A hypotheis on the bisexuality of the Paphos Aphrodite is indicated and documented by Antoine Hermar in “Aniconisme et sexualité”.

"The Sanctuary of Aphrodite was one of the most important places of worship in the ancient world and a destination of pilgrimage for centuries until a sudden decay after the Romans forbid non-christian rituals in the Roman colonies in the second century AD. A interaction the Santuary “audience” had with the Black Stone shares a lot of common features with Joseph Beuys’ social sculpture: it was sculpted by generations of visitors by repeated touch in order to obtain blessing from the Stone as embodiment of the Goddess. The act of touching here is seen both as a creation and a destruction (see the project “When the rising sun” 2018 on Gramsci and john Berger). The failed cast of the black stone of Cyprus."

"During centuries the image of the Black Stone got multiplied by the issue of thousands of coins with the sanctuary reproduction. The multiplication and reproduction of the image of the stone during the Greek and Roman period got poorly renewed around 50-60 years ago with the realisation of a cast (with the idee to show the reproduction of the stone in the Museum of Paphos). For technical reasons the cast failed and since then has been abandoned/stocked in the courtyard of the manor-house on the grounds of the sanctuary near Palaipafos together with other archeological artifacts. The specificity of the failed cast consists into be a failed copy of an original, since then the cast started to degenerate because of rain and sun and started to produce its own new shapes and its own aura."

It's very interesting that they state the black stone was "smothered or covered with oil in rituals", and this particular practice is based on "Abhishekam" or the anointing of the pillar of Shiva. Now, the "phallus" of Uranus (as Uranus' phallus was cut off by Saturn) connects to the Phallic pillar from which the goddess Aphrodite emerges from (Hence the Shiva Lingam). This will connect to the "Black stone of Aphrodite" to the "black stone of Jupiter", or as Acts 19:35 states "the image that fell from Jupiter" in Mecca.

In the Wiki based on "Sexuality in Rome" states this: Hermaphroditism and androgyny: "In his chapter on anthropology and human physiology in the encyclopedic Natural History, Pliny notes that "there are even those who are born of both sexes, whom we call hermaphrodites, at one time androgyni" (andr-, "man", and gyn-, "woman", from the Greek). The Sicilian historian Diodorus (1st century BC) wrote that "there are some who declare that the coming into being of creatures of a kind such as these are marvels (terata), and being born rarely, they announce the future, sometimes for evil and sometimes for good". "Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) described a hermaphrodite fancifully as those who "have the right breast of a man and the left of a woman, and after coitus in turn can both sire and bear children". In contemporary English, "hermaphrodite" is used in biology but has acquired pejorative connotations in referring to people born with physical characteristics of both sexes (see intersex); in antiquity, however, the figure of the so-called hermaphrodite was a primary focus of questions pertaining to gender identity."

"The hermaphrodite represented a "violation of social boundaries, especially those as fundamental to daily life as male and female". In traditional Roman religion, a hermaphroditic birth was a kind of prodigium, an occurrence that signalled a disturbance of the pax deorum, Rome's treaty with the gods, as Diodorus indicated. Livy records an incident during the Second Punic War when the discovery of a four-year-old hermaphrodite prompted an elaborate series of expiations: on the advice of the haruspices, the child was enclosed in a chest, carried out to sea, and allowed to drown. Other rituals followed. A hermaphrodite found in 133 BC was drowned in the local river; committing the hermaphroditic person to the element of water seems to have been the prescribed way to repair the perceived violation of the natural order."

"Pliny observed that while hermaphrodites were once considered portents (prodigia), in his day they had become objects of delight (deliciae); they were among the human curiosities of the sort that the wealthy might acquire at the "monsters' market" at Rome described by Plutarch. Under Roman law, a hermaphrodite had to be classed as either male or female; no third gender existed as a legal category. In the mythological tradition, Hermaphroditus was a beautiful youth who was the son of Hermes (Roman Mercury) and Aphrodite (Venus). Like many other divinities and heroes, he had been nursed by nymphs, but the evidence that he himself received cult devotion among the Greeks is sparse."

"Ovid wrote the most influential narrative of how Hermaphroditus became androgynous, emphasizing that although the handsome youth was on the cusp of sexual adulthood, he rejected love as Narcissus had, and likewise at the site of a reflective pool. There the water nymph Salmacis saw and desired him. He spurned her, and she pretended to withdraw until, thinking himself alone, he undressed to bathe in her waters. She then flung herself upon him, and prayed that they might never be parted. The gods granted this request, and thereafter the body of Hermaphroditus contained both male and female."

"As a result, men who drank from the waters of the spring Salmacis supposedly "grew soft with the vice of impudicitia", according to the lexicographer Festus. The myth of Hylas, the young companion of Hercules who was abducted by water nymphs, shares with Hermaphroditus and Narcissus the theme of the dangers that face the beautiful adolescent male as he transitions to adult masculinity, with varying outcomes for each. Depictions of Hermaphroditus were very popular among the Romans. The dramatic situation in paintings often elicits a "double take" on the part of the viewer, or expresses the theme of sexual frustration."

"Hermaphroditus is often in the company of a satyr, a figure of bestial sexuality known for subjecting an unsuspecting or often sleeping victim to non-consensual sex; the satyr in scenes with Hermaphroditus is usually shown to be surprised or repulsed, to humorous effect. In a few works, Hermaphroditus is strong enough to ward off his would-be attacker, but in others he shows his willingness to engage in sex, even if the satyr seems no longer inclined: Artistic representations of Hermaphroditus bring to the fore the ambiguities in sexual differences between women and men as well as the ambiguities in all sexual acts."

"... Hermaphroditus gives an eternally ambiguous answer to a man's curiosity about a woman's sexual experience—and vice versa. ... (A)rtists always treat Hermaphroditus in terms of the viewer finding out his/her actual sexual identity. ... Hermaphroditus stands for both the physical and, more important, the psychological impossibility of ever understanding the feelings of the beloved. Hermaphroditus is a highly sophisticated representation, invading the boundaries between the sexes that seem so clear in classical thought and representation."

"Macrobius describes a masculine form of "Venus" (Aphrodite) who received cult on Cyprus; she had a beard and male genitals, but wore women's clothing. The deity's worshippers cross-dressed, men wearing women's clothes, and women men's. The Latin poet Laevius wrote of worshipping "nurturing Venus" whether female or male (sive femina sive mas). The figure was sometimes called Aphroditos. In several surviving examples of Greek and Roman sculpture, she is found in the attitude anasyrmene, from the Greek verb anasyromai, "to pull up one's clothes". The love goddess lifts her garments to reveal her masculine attribute, male genitalia, a gesture that traditionally held apotropaic or magical power."

Below is the symbol of Hermes who is known as Mercury. Then there is Aphrodite’s symbol who is similar to Mercury. There is a reason why Mercury has the same symbol as Aphrodite, but with the additional horns attached on top for it's lunar symbology. This will link to the famous "Devil horns" as the crescent moon of Shiva and Kali, and how they are both identified as the crescent moon and the star leading to the "Saturn" symbology.

Then there is a form of Shiva and Parvati called "Ardhanarishvara", which is the androgynous form of Parvati and Shiva. This connects to what Eliphas Levi drew in his drawing of Baphomet as the five-pointed star is the symbol of Venus as it connects to the feminine energy and the crescent for Shiva as Mercury. Together they have the phallus and breast of a woman, the "Lucifer" symbology for the torch above their head, and a crescent moon with star on the third eye. The goat is the symbol for Dionysus, who is considered the "black goat" as one of his epithets.

You can also see "Fuxi and Nuwa" holding the compass and ruler, thus showing how the six pointed star represents the lingam and yoni combined. The upward triangle represents the phallus of Shiva/Hermes, whereas Kali/Durga's yoni has the downward triangle or a "circle". This is where why the Bathrooms sometimes show a triangle for men and a circle for women. Now, the Muslims would throw rocks at this stone Obelisk, thus calling it the "pillar of Satan" or "ramy al-jamarāt". However, based from what it really represents, they won't know how this connects to the black stone....

Now, the "Jesus fish" has nothing to do with Jesus giving fish or telling the people to becoming "fishers of men", but represents the "Yoni" or "womb" of the Goddess, as the water is where the Black god emerges from (like Murugan or the Moon god Sin coming forth from the waters). This figure is called the Mandorla:

"a pointed oval figure used as an architectural feature and as an aureole enclosing figures such as Jesus Christ or the Virgin Mary in medieval art.Also called vesica piscis."

Then the "Vesica Piscis" states this: "a pointed oval figure used as an architectural feature and as an aureole enclosing figures such as Jesus Christ or the Virgin Mary in medieval art. Also called mandorla. "It also pertains to the "Mother Goddess of creation" who is worshiped with a womb. Vesica Piscis is said to mean "Bladder of a fish":

"The vesica piscis is a type of lens, a mathematical shape formed by the intersection of two disks with the same radius, intersecting in such a way that the center of each disk lies on the perimeter of the other. In Latin, "vesica piscis" literally means "bladder of a fish", reflecting the shape's resemblance to the conjoined dual air bladders ("swim bladder") found in most fish. In Italian, the shape's name is mandorla ("almond"). 

The Aureola is this: "An aureola or aureole (diminutive of Latin aurea, "golden") is the radiance of luminous cloud which, in paintings of sacred personages, surrounds the whole figure. In Romance languages, the noun Aureola is usually more related to the disc of light surrounding the head of sacred figures and that in English is called Halo or Nimbus."

"A mandorla is a vesica piscis shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art. It is commonly used to frame the figure of Christ in Majesty in early medieval and Romanesque art, as well as Byzantine art of the same periods. The term refers to the almond like shape: "mandorla" means almond nut in Italian. In icons of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the mandorla is used to depict sacred moments which transcend time and space, such as the Resurrection, Transfiguration, and the Ascension. These mandorla will often be painted in several concentric patterns of color which grow darker as they come close to the center. This is in keeping with the church's use of Apophatic theology, as described by Dionysius the Areopagite and others. As holiness increases, there is no way to depict its brightness, except by darkness."

Based from the Wiki states this interesting segment on the term "Nun": "Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn Phoenician nun.svg, Hebrew Nun נ‎, Aramaic Nun Nun.svg, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn ن (in abjadi order). Its numerical value is 50. It is the third letter in Thaana (ނ), pronounced as "noonu". In all languages, it represents the alveolar nasal /n/. The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek nu (Ν), Etruscan N, Latin N, and Cyrillic Н."

Origins: "Nun is believed to be derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph of a snake (the Hebrew word for snake, nachash begins with a Nun and snake in Aramaic is nun) or eel. Some have hypothesized a hieroglyph of fish in water as its origin (in Arabic, nūn means large fish or whale). The Phoenician letter was named nūn "fish", but the glyph has been suggested to descend from a hypothetical Proto-Canaanite naḥš "snake", based on the name in Ethiopic, ultimately from a hieroglyph representing a snake."

Rather interesting references towards the "fish" or "serpent" symbology.

Now, in "Isis Unveiled" Chapter 9 page p. 446 states this: "Thus woman stands in the cosmogony in relation to "matter" or the great deep, as the "Virgin of the Sea," who crushes the "Dragon" under her foot. The "Flood" is also very often shown, in symbolical phraseology, as the "great Dragon." For one acquainted with these tenets it becomes more than suggestive to learn that with the Catholics the Virgin Mary is not only the accepted patroness of Christian sailors, but also the "Virgin of the Sea."

"So was Dido the patroness of the Phoenician mariners; * and together with Venus and other lunar goddesses--the moon having such a strong influence over the tides--was the "Virgin of the Sea." Mar, the Sea, is the root of the name Mary. The blue color, which was with the ancients symbolical of the "Great Deep" or the material world, hence--of evil, is made sacred to our "Blessed Lady."

"It is the color of "Notre Dame de Paris." On account of its relation to the symbolical serpent this color is held in the deepest aversion by the ex-Nazarenes, disciples of John the Baptist, now the Mendaeans of Basra. Among the beautiful plates of Maurice, there is one representing Christna crushing the head of the Serpent."

"A three-peaked mitre is on his head (typifying the trinity), and the body and tail of the conquered serpent encircles the figure of the Hindu god. This plate shows whence proceeded the inspiration for the "make up" of a later story extracted from an alleged prophecy. "I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."

The term "Mary" is really based on the "Mari", especially when this Goddess is connects to the sea or water. This is where Jordan Maxwell details the "Maritime" laws, and how the water connects to the Goddess worship. This is also where the "Vesica Piscis" and "Mandorla" is based on, as the symbol of the fish Goddess is shown around the Virgin Mary and Jesus. Based from the Wiki states this on "Mari":

"Mari, also called Mari Urraca, Anbotoko Mari ("the lady of Anboto"), and Murumendiko Dama ("lady of Murumendi") is the goddess of the Basques. She is married to the god Sugaar (also known as Sugoi or Maju). Legends connect her to the weather: when she and Maju travel together hail will fall, her departures from her cave will be accompanied by storms or droughts, and which cave she lives in at different times will determine dry or wet weather: wet when she is in Anboto; dry when she is elsewhere (the details vary). Other places where she is said to dwell include the chasm of Murumendi, the cave of Gurutzegorri (Ataun), Aizkorri and Aralar, although it is not always possible to be certain which Basque legends should be considered as the origin."

"It is believed that Mari is a modification of Emari (gift) or Amari (mother + the suffix of profession) by losing the first vowel. The closeness in names between Mary and Mari may have helped pagans adapt their worship of Mari to undertake Christian veneration of the Virgin Mary, (Basque: Andre Maria, Biscayan: Andra Mari). The first known written citation of the "Dame of Amboto" was made by Charles V's chronicler Esteban de Garibay Zamalloa in his Memorial histórico español...."

Then look up the consort "Sugaar": "In Basque mythology, Sugaar (also Sugar, Sugoi, Suarra, Maju) is the male half of a pre-Christian Basque deity associated with storms and thunder. He is normally imagined as a dragon or serpent. Unlike his female consort, Mari, there are very few remaining legends about Sugaar. The basic purpose of his existence is to periodically join with Mari in the mountains to generate the storms. In one myth Sugaar seduces a Scottish princess in the village of Mundaka to father the mythical first Lord of Biscay, Jaun Zuria. This legend is believed to be a fabrication made to legitimize the Lordship of Biscay as a separate state from Navarre, because there is no historical account of such a lord. Only the fact that the delegates of Mundaka were attributed with the formal privilege of being the first to vote in the Biltzar (Parliament) of the province may look as unlikely indication of the partial veracity of this legend."

"The name Suga(a)r is derived from suge (serpent) and -ar (male), thus "male serpent". The suggestions of a formation based on su (fire) and gar (flame), thus yielding "flame of fire" are considered folk etymology. Sugoi, another name of the same deity, has two possible interpretations, either a suge + o[h]i (former, "old serpent") or su + goi ("high fire"). There is no likely etymology for the third name of this god, Maju."

Local legends on Sugaar: "In Ataun he is said to have two homes: in the caves of Amunda and Atarreta. He is said to have been witnessed crossing the sky in form of fire-sickle, what is considered presage of storms. In this area is also said that Sugaar punishes the children that disobey their parents. In Azkoitia Sugaar is clearly identified with Maju. He meets Mari on Fridays (the day of the akelarre or sabbat), conceiving then the storms. In Betelu Sugaar is known as Suarra and considered a demon. There they say that he travels through the sky in the shape of a fireball, between the mountains Balerdi and Elortalde."

She would be called Lamashtu: "In Mesopotamian mythology, Lamashtu was a female demon, monster, malevolent goddess or demigoddess who menaced women during childbirth and, if possible, kidnapped their children while they were breastfeeding."

"She would gnaw on their bones and suck their blood, as well as being charged with a number of other evil deeds. She was a daughter of the Sky God Anu. Lamashtu is depicted as a mythological hybrid, with a hairy body, a lioness' head with donkey's teeth and ears, long fingers and fingernails, and the feet of a bird with sharp talons. She is often shown standing or kneeling on a donkey, nursing a pig and a dog, and holding snakes. She thus bears some functions and resemblance to the Mesopotamian demon Lilith....She bore seven names and was described as seven witches in incantations."

"Her evil deeds included (but were not limited to): slaying children, unborns, and neonates; causing harm to mothers and expectant mothers; eating men and drinking their blood; disturbing sleep; bringing nightmares; killing foliage; infesting rivers and lakes; and being a bringer of disease, sickness, and death." Now you know why the Democrats have the donkey and support abortion. There is also a clinic called "The Lilith Fund".....

Look up "Mask": "mask (v.) 1560s, "to take part in a masquerade" (a sense now obsolete); 1580s as "to wear a mask," also "disguise (feelings, etc.) under an assumed outward show;" from mask (n.) and French masquer. Military sense of "conceal" (a battery, etc.) from the view of the enemy" is from 1706. Related: Masked; masking. Masking tape recorded from 1927; so called because it is used to block out certain surfaces before painting.

Let's break down why it's called a "Veil": "veil (n.) c. 1200, "nun's head covering," from Anglo-French and Old North French veil (12c., Modern French voile) "a head-covering," also "a sail, a curtain," from Latin vela, plural of velum "sail, curtain, covering," from PIE root *weg- (1) "to weave a web." Vela was mistaken in Vulgar Latin for a feminine singular noun. To take the veil "become a nun" is attested from early 14c. veil (v.) late 14c., from Old French veler, voiller (12c.), from Latin velare "to cover, veil," from velum "a cloth, covering, curtain, veil," literally "a sail" (see veil (n.)). Figurative sense of "to conceal, mask, disguise" (something immaterial) is recorded from 1530s. Related: Veiled; veiling."

This veil is the "Kerchief" that the God of fire states in Ezekiel 13:20-23 “Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against your pillows, wherewith ye there hunt the souls to make them fly, and I will tear them from your arms, and will let the souls go, even the souls that ye hunt to make them fly. Your kerchiefs also will I tear, and deliver my people out of your hand, and they shall be no more in your hand to be hunted; and ye shall know that I am the LORD. Because with lies ye have made the heart of the righteous sad, whom I have not made sad; and strengthened the hands of the wicked, that he should not return from his wicked way, by promising him life: Therefore ye shall see no more vanity, nor divine divinations: for I will deliver my people out of your hand: and ye shall know that I am the LORD."

Now, look up "Kerchief": "kerchief (n.) "square piece of fabric folded and worn about the head," early 13c., kovrechief "piece of cloth used to cover part of the head," especially a woman's head-cloth or veil, from Anglo-French courchief, Old French couvrechief "a kerchief," literally "cover head," from couvrir "to cover" (see cover (v.)) + chief "head" (from Latin caput "head," from PIE root *kaput- "head"). From late 14c. as "piece of cloth used about the person" generally, for purposes other than covering the head; and from c. 1400 as "piece of cloth carried in the hand" to wipe the face, etc. (compare handkerchief)." (kerchief (n.) a square scarf that is folded into a triangle and worn over the head or about the neck;)

Interesting reference to the "business men" that wear the ties around their neck to go to work. The "veil" is where the Nuns and the Muslim women get this practice from, as this is a form of worship towards the Queen of heaven. The "Mask" is a form of "Veil", that is used as a ritual to worship the female goddess of death. The Burkah, Niqab and the Hijab are forms of worship towards the Queen of heaven".

Here is a movie called “Metropolis” based from the 1920s in Germany detailing the hidden messages about a dystopian society. In a certain scene there is a woman being supported by seven black men, as this details the “whore of Babylon” from Revelations 17. Even in the background details the pentagram symbolism, thus connecting to the Queen of heaven.

Based from understanding the symbolism, one source states that it's based on the five points that Venus makes around the Earth. Amongst other perspectives, the five pointed star is said to represent the motion of Venus going around the sun in 8 earth years. The "5" pointed star and the "8" pointed star of Inanna comes up to the number "13", thus making "13" the number of a woman. Then maybe you can see why the term "In God we trust" on the dollar bill is based on a Goddess, and how there are 13 arrows, 13 leaves of the olive branch, and 13 stars above the eagle. Then based from other sources details the 9 tail feathers representing the "9" deities that run the cosmos, to the numerology of 1-9. Apparently, the number zero wasn't either recognized or considered man-made. The numbers 1-9 make a square resembling the cube.

Based on the pentagram symbol details the secret connections of the “Great woman's” anatomy by Leonardo Davinci. If you can, you should be able to see how her womb is really the pentagram leading to Baphomet and why the Pentagon is called the "Pentagon" and how this connects to the "Yoni" symbol.

Then there is the mystery of the term "Vatican" to have come from the Etruscan Goddess "Vatika". Based from "www.bibliotecapleyades.net" states this:

"The Vatican is a symbol of Christianity. We are today so used to the name that we hardly think about how the Vatican got its name. The truth is that the name Vatican is neither Latin nor Greek and it cannot be traced to the Bible either. The word we associate with the Church is closely linked to the Etruscan goddess Vatika. As you are about to find out, the name "Vatican" predates Christianity and is shrouded in mystery."

Inside The Vatican City State: "The Vatican City State was founded on February 11, 1929. Located in Rome, Italy, it is the world's smallest independent country by both population and area. The city has a population of around 840 and an area of approximately 108 acres (44 hectares)."

"The Vatican is a symbol of the Roman Catholic faith and its power and influence on religious people cannot be denied and the Holy See's authority extends over Catholics throughout the world. The Vatican Palace, north of St. Peter's Basilica is the residence of the Pope within the city walls. The Vatican is famous for its beautiful buildings such as the Sistine Chapel, St. Peter's Square and St. Peter's Basilica. The Vatican Museums are filled with masterpieces of painting, sculpture and other works of art collected by the popes through the centuries. The Vatican Apostolic Library, is located inside the Vatican Palace."

"The Vatican Library was founded in 1451 AD and holds over 80,000 manuscripts, prints, drawings, plates and incunabula (books printed prior to 1500 AD) written throughout history by people of different faiths from across the world. To make ancient material available to the public, some years ago, the Vatican Apostolic Library started digitizing its valuable ancient religious manuscripts and putting them online via its website. In 2014, the Vatican Library had 4,000 ancient manuscripts available online for free. The Vatican's secret archives are not as secret as many think. In 1881, Pope Leo XIII allowed scholars to visit the private archives for the first time and in modern times it's possible to get access to the documents, but outsiders must know what they are looking for because with 52 miles of shelves in the archives, the librarians prohibit browsing."

The Etruscan Goddess Vatika Of The Underworld: "The name Vatican is a true mystery. It has nothing to do with the Bible, Greek language or Latin. As many other Christian traditions and customs, the name we associate with the Church has a pagan origin. More than twenty-eight centuries ago, and before the legendary founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus, there was a people called the Etruscans. About 3000 years ago, the mysterious Etruscans, settled in a region of Central Italy was known as Etruria and they ruled the region of the Mediterranean before the rise of Rome."

"We are still trying to master the difficult language of the Etruscans, but over the years we have learned a lot about their beliefs and daily lives. In facts, most of the knowledge we possess about the Roman civilization comes from the Etruscans. The Etruscans did not bury their dead inside the walls of their cities. Instead, they built a large cemetery on a hillside slope outside of their ancient city in the area that later became the city of Rome. Sadly, most of Etruscan literature and mythology has been lost, but we know that the guardian of this necropolis was the Etruscan goddess Vatika (sometimes spelled Vatica). She was the goddess of the Underworld and it was her duty to keep a watching eye on those who had passed away."

"The Etruscans believed in an afterlife but our knowledge about it is derived mainly from images and artifacts discovered inside their tombs. It seems that the Etruscan's beliefs about the afterlife were similar to those of ancient Egyptians. Treatment of the deceased's remains was important for survival and successful journey to next life."

"Vanth, an Etruscan death daemon and servant of Charun (Greek Cheiron), lord of the Underworld was often depicted on urns that held the ashes of cremated bodies. Vanth was usually depicted with wings and had bearded snakes entwined around her arms. According to Etruscan mythology, Vanth attended from the moment of death until entry into the Underworld." 

Where Does the Name Vatican Come From? "Vatika had several other related meanings in ancient Etruscan. The name was not only associated with the goddess of the Underworld. Vatika was also a bitter not well-tasting grape used by peasant to produce cheap wine. The grape as well as a weed with the same name grew on the slope. When people ate it, they experienced hallucinations and the word passed on into Latin as a synonym for "prophetic vision".

"The Latin word vaticinor means "foretell, prophesy" from vatis "poet, teacher, oracle". Biblical sources have various explanations for the origin of the name Vatican. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the origin of the name Vaticanus is uncertain; some claim that the name comes from a vanished Etruscan town called Vaticum. However, according to a Vatican curator, the Vatican Hill takes it name from the Latin word Vaticanus, a vaticiniis ferendis, in allusion to the oracles, or Vaticinia, which were anciently delivered here. So, we can conclude by saying that the origin of the name Vatican is unclear, but most researchers think the name was borrowed from the Etruscan language..."